English Exercises > conjunctions exercises > Until vs. unless
 
 
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Age: 10-17
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Until   vs.  Unless

Until     O will only occur once X is done (the longer it takes to do X, the longer it will be until O happens. i.e. O happens immediately after X.)
 
-------------------X-->O
 
-------------------------------------------X-->O
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------X-->O
 
Example 1: He never caught a fish until his father showed him how.  (Once his father showed him how to catch fish [X], he caught one [O].)
Example 2: We can't use the playground until they catch the snake that is out there. (Playing on the playground [O] will not occur until catching the snake [X] occurs.)
 

 
Unless    If X is not done, O will not occur. (X may occur anytime before O.)
 
-------------------------------------------------------------- --> O   (O doesn't happen, because X didn't happen.)
 
------------------------------X------------------------------ --> O
 
------------------------------------------------------X------ --> O
 
----X-------------------------------------------------------- --> O
 
Example: He never would have caught any fish unless his father had shown him how.  (He would have gone on failing forever -- situation shown on top line -- if he had not been taught how to fish. Sometime after being taught, he succeeded in catching one [O occurred].)
Example 2: We can't use the playground unless they have already caught the snake.  (If X - catching the snake - occurred at some point in the past, then O -- playing on the playground -- can happen.)
 

 
Practice using until or unless in the following sentences:
 
 
     1. I won't get a birthday present from Joe  I invite him to my party.
 
     2. My feet get cold  I wear socks.
 
     3. She runs  she is out of breath.
 
     4. I can't go on the field trip  my mom sends in a permission slip before the deadline.
 
     5. I stay in my classroom  it is time to go to P.E.
 
     6. She is not allowed to get her ears pierced  she is 13 years old.
 
     7. I cannot wait  school gets out for the summer.
 
     8. I'm going to Disney World in two weeks  my dad's car is still broken.
 
     9. Sailboats can't move  the wind blows.
 
   10. He did not come to the cafeteria  lunch was half over.
 
   11. I will meet you at the theater at 5:00  I have to stay late at work.
 
   12.  you want to be sent to the dean's office, you need to sit down and do your work.
 
   13. He's going to work on the car  it runs properly.
 
   14. They played at the pool  the storm came and the lifeguard told everyone to get out.
 
   15. Our dog jumped on visitors  we took a dog obedience course and taught him to "stay."
 
   16. I'm not going to be able to afford to go on the trip  I win the lottery.
 
 

 

       

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